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彝族彩布貼花(水城縣)
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紙廠彝族彩布貼花傳承人龍正英、張忠群等傳承服飾制作技藝。

        彩布貼花亦稱“貼布繡”、“貼花繡”、“貼花”、“鎖邊滾花”等,系用各色絹、綾、布等按圖案搭配拼貼鑲嵌挑刺而成。水城彝族彩布貼花有卷云頭、歪桃、石榴等數十種傳統圖案以及各種隨意剪出的自由圖案,多為曲線塊面組合,各類圖案可穿插重疊套用,相互之間多以各類與鎖邊相同的旋曲葉草線條串連。

彝族服飾彩布貼花工藝制作廣泛流傳在水城縣紙廠、玉舍、坪寨等鄉鎮的彝族村寨,是當地彝族服飾制作中最具特色的傳統手工技藝。紙廠彝族服飾彩布貼花工藝是彝家服飾制作與裝飾的重要組成部分,具有特定的工藝技巧和程序,在彝家婦女中相互研習,代代相傳,充分體現了彝家女子的聰明才智和心靈手巧,具有悠久的傳承歷史。該技藝所流傳的彝族村寨地處貴州西部烏蒙山脈北段的半涼山地區,為長江水系的三岔河與珠江水系的北盤江分水嶺,境內氣候夏無酷暑,冬無嚴寒,地處涼都六盤水的中心地帶,屬暖溫帶季風氣候區。地域植被種類多樣,溪瀑濕地隨處可見,熔巖地貌發育,峰巒溶洞奇特,具有廣闊的生態旅游資源開發前景。

其貼花底料多選用白色等淺色平板棉麻布,圖案所用彩色布料多采用光澤度較好的絹綢,顏色搭配講究諧調鮮艷,或對比色直接并列,或同類型色逐層推進,搭配皆視各人愛好而定。圖案均以大色塊為主,色塊與色塊之間用黑布滾線鎖邊分隔或連接。滾線鎖邊黑布料需用整塊布按其圖案所需剪紙花樣滿鋪留邊挖空剪出,圖案所需彩色布料先按剪紙花樣圖案各部分塊面設計好。制作時將滾邊黑布料花樣訂在白底布上,再將按塊面設計好剪下的各類彩色布料拼貼鑲疊于滾邊黑布料花樣之下,然后將滾邊黑布剪口邊與填色彩布剪口邊折疊用隱針埋線密密鑲結鎖訂滾邊。滾邊可將填色彩布剪口包裹成“滾邊”,亦可相疊“留邊”。完工后的彩布貼花層次分明,線條流暢,色調沉穩瑰麗諧調,遠看如單線平涂、近看似淺面浮雕,極具民族特色。

遠看如單線平涂、近看似淺面浮雕,極具民族特色。

水城縣彝族彩布貼花有以下特征:

1、用各色絹、綾、布等剪成各種圖案拼貼鑲嵌挑刺。

2、用整塊黑布料按剪紙花樣留邊疊剪出滾邊花樣, 各類所需彩色布料按剪紙花樣圖案各部分塊面設計。

3、有特定的貼花工藝程序。將滾邊黑布料花樣訂在白底布上,再將彩色布料拼貼鑲疊于滾邊黑布料花樣之下,再將各類彩色布料裹邊隱針埋線密密鑲結(彩色布料拼貼鑲疊時先大后小,黑布料滾邊時從里到外,先小后大)。

4、滾邊黑布料可為彩色花樣布料鑲盤鎖邊,亦可單獨滾線盤曲或留塊組成花樣。

5、只能手工操作,至今機器無法仿制。

滾線鎖邊黑布料需用整塊布按其圖案所需剪紙花樣滿鋪留邊挖空剪出

滾邊可將填色彩布剪口包裹成“滾邊”,亦可相疊“留邊”。

完工后的彩布貼花層次分明,線條流暢,色調沉穩瑰麗諧調。

紙廠彝族服飾彩布貼花工藝以黑色布料鑲邊為特色,所用圖案來源于彝家生活,豐富多樣,自古承傳,具有特定的文化內涵。其制作手工性強,具有特殊的觀賞審美價值和歷史文化研究價值。(李荔)

水城彝族彩布貼花服飾

水城彝族彩布貼花服飾

 傳統青布底彩布貼花盛裝女上衣

 

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