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苗族蘆笙
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蘆笙是苗族較為普遍使用的樂器之一,也是節日祭祀的“圣器”,在苗族節日和日常生活的重大事項中不可或缺。黔東南的蘆笙有大小長短各式,高排蘆笙有的長達4米多,只能在室外制作和存放,而短蘆笙僅尺許。

    制作蘆笙,除了要懂得一定的樂理知識外,還要具備物理知識,了解力學原理。蘆笙種類較多,音質各有區別,形體大小也各有不同,要做出合乎需要的蘆笙,首先要求制作工匠有長期的制作經驗。苗族傳承蘆笙制作技藝的師傅只用風箱、錘子、黃銅、斧子、鑿子、鋸子、鉆子、苦竹、桐油和石灰(有的已改用乳膠)就能制作出精美實用的各式蘆笙。 

 蘆笙制作世代相傳,雷山縣排卡村被人們稱作蘆笙村,制作工藝講究,遠近聞名。從1985年起,雷山縣已有十多萬支蘆笙銷往海內外。蘆笙用竹管制作,有一個木制音斗。音斗上插入竹管,一般為6管、12管、15管,最多有24管。管內裝有銅簧片,靠近音斗竹管外側開有小孔,吹奏時手指開按小孔,發出音響。蘆笙有大、中、小、特小等幾種,大的高丈余,小的只有幾寸。演奏時大多由大小不同的蘆笙合奏。以前,蘆笙只有6個音。現在擴大了音域,能演奏更豐富的旋律,增強了藝術表現力。

 蘆笙是苗族文化的一種象征,苗族蘆笙在表演吹奏方面把詞、曲、舞三者融為一體,保持了苗族歷史文化藝術的原生性、古樸性。蘆笙制作技藝歷來都由師傅親手教授,無文字資料留存,且技藝考究,傳承比較困難。 










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